There is a variety of angles that can be taken when considering the consequences of a possible materialised threat. Offshore installations security threats are therefore considered 'hybrid threats' as the consequences may be felt by various actors and sectors around the globe . Possible injury or death of offshore workers need to be considered. Attacks may result in grave injuries or other medical consequences, or loss of life in the worst case  .
A materialised security threat may result in the disruption of the functioning of the offshore installation, due to the damage or harm on the operational site . Consequences of oil spills, especially in the high seas, may be grave .
A possible oil spill may cause long-lasting damage to the immediate environment, but also has wider implications to, for example, the food security of a region as water may get contaminated making related food inedible . Not only would water offshore and in coastal waters be affected, and with that animals and wildlife , but it also may cause toxic effects on shorelines and shallow inshore waters .
This may therefore have consequences for the populations living in the region.
A succeeded attack may result in economic concerns for a variety of actors. Firstly, for the operating company due to the damage or loss of the asset, but also due to a loss of income when production is stalled. Next to that, as oil prices are from its nature volatile and the global oil market is sensitive to changes, a disruption of oil and gas supply to the market may result in an increase in oil prices, which would carry an effect on global economy and the stock exchange.
Ultimately this may affect the global population, as everyone is reliant on oil   . Specifically, as many national economies have become dependent on their oil and gas energy sector a petroleum supply disruption could significantly weaken their national economic power  . An oil spill may also have significant effects on other sectors, so may the local fisheries and tourism sectors experience losses. With the offshore oil and gas sector being one fourth of the global energy production, offshore oil and gas extraction has become increasingly important in the evolving world energy scene  .
Next to that, petroleum, as one of the most important energy resources of the earth, will remain an essential part of the global energy demand also in the future, as demands are not projected to curtail  .
Hence, an uninterrupted petroleum supply is essential in light of the global energy security, as a sustained disruption in oil supply may cause national emergencies   . A sustained disruption in oil and gas supply may also cause geopolitical concerns. For example, could the negative effects on the national economies present a weakened position of this nation within global politics. Furthermore, a state could lose its bargaining power and with that geostrategic imperatives that govern international relations .
Below is a general overview of the main international and regional introduced protection mechanisms for offshore installations, ranging from the legislative to recommended practices, from the maritime to the critical infrastructure sector.
This is a non-exhaustive overview, as next to this there are many regional responses issued by governments, international organisations or other cross-sectional organisations with the aim of providing an increased security situation. Typically, offshore installations are deployed either in the territorial sea , the contiguous zone , or the exclusive economic zone EEZ of a coastal state.
Whilst the coastal state has full enforcement jurisdiction over all security matters in the territorial sea, in the contiguous zone it has at least enforcement powers over law enforcement issues which affect its domestic stability. The coastal state can hence secure its offshore assets broadly through jurisdiction in these two zones. Within this zone, personnel may take appropriate measures to penalise and stop the violators, therefore protecting the offshore installations  .
hostmaster.wecan-group.com/3583.php The main purpose of the Convention is seen to ensure that appropriate action is taken against those who have committed unlawful acts against vessels and offshore oil and gas infrastructure, as it obliges contracting Governments either to extradite or prosecute alleged offenders .
The amendments, moreover, address vulnerable elements of the maritime-based oil and gas industry and draw attention to potential acts of terrorism, establishing that consideration should be given also to the oil and gas industry  . With this the SUA Convention and Protocol provides the first international treaty and framework for combating and prosecuting criminals and terrorists, who have attacked or used a tanker or a fixed oil or gas installation as part of a terrorist operation  .
The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code ISPS prescribes responsibilities to governments, companies and personnel to detect security threats and take preventive measures against security incidents affecting ships or port facilities used in international trade. It moreover introduces maritime security levels for quick crisis communication, therefore providing industry actors with a framework of crisis response when in attack. The voluntary international ISO Standards introduce recommendations and best practices for industry actors.
The ISO Risk Management: Principles and Guidelines is a standard presenting internationally accepted best practice frameworks and guidelines for action on risk management  . It presents a systemised way to identify, analyse, evaluate and treat possible risks to support strategies for major safety and security incident prevention, response and recovery.
Implementing those frameworks is viewed to help in case of an emergency as well as previous preparation for it, also applicable to offshore installations security.
It provides an overarching 7-step methodology for assessment and management of risks and their impact. It has been developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers to be used by the staff and management of infrastructure facilities and is also used by the American industry to report to the US Department of Homeland Security    . It addresses risks and vulnerabilities of critical infrastructure at asset, system and societal level taking into account environmental as well as man-made, security hazards.
It therefore provides industry professionals with a framework to analyse, act and handle in case of a security emergency. The document establishes a 'Security Vulnerability Assessment SVA methodology' to identify and analyse the threats and vulnerabilities those energy installations face. Moreover, general security risk management practices, such as enterprise risk management are employed throughout the sector. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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